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Портрет царя Михаила Федоровича

Mikhail Fyodorovich

(12.7.1596 - 13.7.1645)

Son of Fyodor Nikitich Romanov (Patriarch Filaret) and Ksenia Ivanovna Shestova.

Tsar (1613-1645)

First Russian Tsar from the new Romanov Dynasty. Crowned for reigning in 1613. The ceremonial was traditionally held in the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. The head of the Russian Orthodox Church put on the young Tsar the Crown of Monomakh, barmas, the cross, the golden chain, gave him the scepter and orb. Since that time during the whole XVIIth century they used the Crown of Monomakh, barmas, cross, golden chain, scepter and orb in the crowning ceremony.


Венец

Crown, orb and sceptre

Russia, the Moscow Kremlin workshops, 1627.

Marvelous items, regalia of Tsar Michael Fyodorovich, - crown, scepter and orb,- were symbols of power of the Moscow ruler, and in the XVIIth century belonged to the Grand Ruler's Set, which, except for the state regalia, included an armour set, that accompanied the Tsar in processions, e.g. military companies and hunting.

The crown of Mikhail Fyodorovich was executed by Kremlin masters in 1627. Together with the scepter and orb executed by West European makers it forms a bright ensemble of the second part of the XVIth century – epoch of the late Renaissance.

The huge golden orb is adorned with chased scenes from the Old Testament telling the life story of King David.

The scepter and orb are considered to belong to the set of donations brought to Tsar Boris Godunov in 1604 by the Great Embassy of Rudolph II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The orb and scepter, miraculously survived through the Hard Time, must have been used in 1613 in the crowning of Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich, the first Tsar of the Romanov Dynasty.

Later on, during the reign of Tsar Michael Fyodorovich they were the only regalia of the kind in the royal treasury and according to the inventory belonged to the so called "Grand Attire", a complex of especially valuable regalia. The crown, the orb and the scepter are three monuments of different time and artistic traditions, but of same beauty. The three items are usually called "The Grand Attire" of Tsar Michael Fyodorovich.


Цепь

Chain

Russia, the Moscow Kremlin workshops, first half of the XVIIth century.
Belonged to Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich.

The most ancient chain of the Royal ones in the Armoury collection. 
The golden chain belonged to Tsar Michael Fyodorovich. It was executed by Kremlin makers and first mentioned in papers of the State treasury in 1640. It consists of 88 round, slightly convoluted rings with an ornamental inscription on each ring. The inscription includes a praying to the Holy Trinity, the complete title of the Tsar with a list of towns, princedoms and lands of the Russian State and the Tsar's hortation to live according the percepts of God.


Трон

Throne plated with gold

The Orient, Moscow, the Moscow Kremlin workshops, before 1642.
Belonged to Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich.

The throne was crafted in the early XVIIth century in Kemlin Workshops. Its decoration is similar to that of the throne of Boris Godunov. It is also adorned with golden stamped zones and large gems, turquoise is especially bright. 13 kilos of gold, rubies, chrysolites, topazes and pearls were used for its ornamentation.

While the creation of the throne ornamentation of some Persian things of the treasury might have been used. The throne is shaped like a chair with elbow-sets and a high back, just like the throne of Ivan the Terrible. The throne's decoration haven't survived. A part of golden plates in the base as well as the throne's pediment have not survived.

 
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