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After the 1917 February Revolution the treasures of the Moscow Kremlin aroused an intense interest on the part of the researchers and members of the general public. Well-known historians and critics have been invented plans of transformation of the Kremlin into a city-museum. However, events of autumn 1917, the return of the Soviet government to Moscow and the Civil war raised questions of a museum's organization and preservation of treasures of the Moscow Kremlin in a new way.

During November fights in Moscow curators and employees of the museum who were in the building of the Armory Chamber, managed to save up treasures stored in it. In the early 20-s, the concept of the museum was changed as under new social and political circumstances the museum was to present the history of Russian and foreign decorative an applied art, to show work of imperial workshops, etc. Such restriction in the approach to the display of museum treasures might have been compelled, dictated aspiration of heads of the museum M.S. Sergeev and D.D. Ivanov to keep exhibits, attending attention not to their historical importance, but to the skill of execution.

In July, 1922, the museum except for the Armoury Chamber included the Assumption, Archangel's, Annunciation Cathedrals, the Church of Laying Our Lady’s Holy Robe and the Patriarchal Chambers of the XVIIth century. So, the museum complex repeatedly changing the name and submission appeared in the Kremlin territory.

In the second half of 1929, the situation in the museum became extremely intense. Since December, 1, 1929, Director of the museum D.D.Ivanov was taken off the job. On January, 13, 1930 he died.

The 1930-s were tragic in the museum history. All leading research assistants took their discharge, and partly exposed to reprisals. In 1934 Deputy Director In Science V.K. Klein was arrested on the so-called «Kremlin case». After D.D. Ivanov's leave, people without either formations or skill of museum work were appointed Directors one by one.

Research work in the museum was practically stopped. Access of tourists in the museum in the closed Kremlin territory became extremely limited. In the early 1938, the museum complex was transferred to the Administration Commandant Office of the Moscow Kremlin. The research work in the museum was practically stopped. Access of visitors was limited. In the early 1938, the museum complex was transferred to the Administration of the Commandant Service of the Moscow Kremlin.